the design, development, implementation, and operation of a corporate
intranet can be a long, difficult, and time consuming task. In this
article, we present the primary steps to ensure a successful intranet
development effort. Here, at Horsburgh.com, we have used this
approach successfully on our client's intranet development projects.
The definition and recording of the problem to be solved is one
of the most often overlooked step of any development effort. A
problem needs to be solved, so the tendency is to jump right in
and solve it. For small, negligible cost efforts this is fine. For
Intranet design, ignoring this step can lead to disaster. Write
down and widely publish the answers to the following questions,
and all other questions that are appropriate for your specific effort.
Remember to keep the questions targeted to DEFINING the problem
NOT solving it.
Do I Need an Intranet?
This is an obvious question, but should be taken seriously. For
some businesses the answer is an easy yes, but for others, there
may be better solutions. It is wise to seek professional advice
when answering this question. Having an outside professional examine
the question may cost some money up-front, but they are far less
costly early on the development.
What specific Problems will it solve?
Write down the four, five, ten, whatever, number of problems that
having an Intranet will solve. The problems should be clearly
stated, be very specific, and have testable criteria for success.
Make sure you publicize these problems and get user and management
What are my available resources (time, money, and personnel)?
Knowing what your actual resources are at the beginning is critical
for defining the development path. If your budget is low, consider
down-scaling the effort. If time is short, consider using off-the-shelf
products extensively. If your personnel resources are thin, consider
outsourcing. Being realistic about your actual resources will
help you prevent overruns and project disappointments. Promising
a gold watch when you only have resources for a plastic toy will
always doom a project. Also, don't be afraid to tell upper management
that the resources are too small for solving the problem. Believe
me, they would rather know up front than get a surprise during
What criteria will I use to measure success?
This is an often overlooked step in the problem definition. For
every problem stated, you must define a means for determining
the success of the solution. If you can't think of a success criteria,
then the problem is not defined specifically enough. Stay away
from problem statements such as "The network must be faster."
Restate the problem in quantifiable terms, like: "The network
must provide a response time of no longer than 1.5 seconds for
the XYZ accounting program for up to 50 simultaneous users."
Should I outsource all, some, or none of the development and
If you have in-house personnel that are under-utilized or have
time to be assigned to the development process, then keeping most
of the development in-house makes sense. If not, then you can
either hire additional staff or outsource some or most of the
development. I recommend that you do not outsource all of the
development. You must have some in-house expertise available or
at least strong upper management support. Otherwise you may end
up with a very nice system that does not solve your problems.
Strategic outsourcing makes sense in most medium to large development
projects. The outsourcing contractor can supply the needed expertise
and personnel at the various development phases. And when a particular
phase is finished, you are not left with a staff member looking
for something to do. You will probably find the up-front
costs of an outsourcing firm to be higher than hiring in-house
personnel. But the long-term savings will be far greater with
a professional outsourcing firm than by retaining in-house personnel.
Remember to make sure you feel comfortable with the outsourcer's
style and abilities. You will be working with them very closely.
Don't just choose the largest or best-known source. How you and
your outsourcer "mesh" is far more important than their
list of clients.
Am I upgrading an existing system, converting from a legacy
system, or developing from scratch?
Developing a system from scratch, as strange as it sounds, is
by far the easiest. If you are in this situation, count your blessings.
If not, upgrading an existing system or converting from one or
more legacy systems will be your lot. Fortunately, you will have
a long list of "things that don't work right" to begin
with. Make sure that you fully understand what systems will still
be in place after the migration and how they will be integrated
into your intranet. If your budget is low, then consider using
middleware and "web-like" products to layer on top of
the existing system. With a more moderate budget, you can replace
inefficient systems with newer and more powerful ones. Remember
that computer hardware is cheap. It's the software and operations
that are expensive. Powerful hardware can make even today's bloated
software work faster. With a higher budget, consider replacing
inefficient or outdated portions of the intranet with newer streamlined
hardware and software. If you are not sure what the "latest
and greatest" intranet products are, hire a professional
intranet consultant. Their fee will be well worth it.
Performing a requirements analysis is critical to the success
of any project. Without a clear goal in mind, success is dubious.
There are a number of different philosophies about requirements
analysis: top down, bottom up, inside out, etc. The method I have
found to work the best is as follows:
- Clearly state the problem(s) you wish to solve.
- Identify the users of the completed system.
- Formulate a specific budget -- time, money, personnel.
- Ask identified users to specifically state what they expect
the system to do.
- Ask management to specifically state their success criteria.
- Separate their requirements from their "desirements."
Only design to requirements. The enhancement phase is where you
address the "desirements."
- Group and "bubble-up" requirements.
- Generate a prioritized requirements table listing the requirement,
where it came from, the success criteria, and priority. Keep this
table high-level. A table with a dozen requirements will be much
easier to manage than one with hundreds.
- Produce a detailed development schedule including hardware,
software, personnel, documentation, and reviews. Include outsourcing
requirements and long lead-time items.
- Get a sign-off of the requirements, resource allocation, and
schedule from top management before you go any further.
Note that items 4 & 5 will be asked throughout the development
cycle since their responses will change when they see prototypes
and when they are being trained. Be sure to update items 6 through
9 each time.
Beware of getting caught in the cycle of
You: What are your requirements?
Them: I don't know, what can you do?
It's always best to ask very specific questions. Don't worry if
their responses change each time you ask the question. It will
happen, so plan for it.
Design & Prototyping
There are many design methodologies. The ones I've used
most successfully are 1. Rapid Prototyping (for small to medium
projects) and 2. Structured Development (for large or very complex
There are five
keys to a successful rapid prototyping methodology:
- Assemble a small very bright team of programmers, hardware
technicians, designers, quality assurance technicians, documentation
and graphic artist specialists, and a single manager.
- Define and involve a small "focus group" consisting
of users (both novice and experienced) and managers (both line
and upper). These are the people who will provide the feedback
necessary to drive the prototyping cycle. Listen to them.
- Generate a user's manual and user interface first. You will
be amazed at what you will find out by producing a user's manual
- Use tools specifically designed for rapid prototyping. Stay
away from C, C++, COBOL, etc. Instead use tools such as Visual
Basic, HTML authoring, and similar development environments.
- Remember a prototype is NOT the final application. Prototypes
are meant to be copied into production models. Once the prototypes
are successful, then begin the development processing using development
tools, such as C, C++, Java, etc.
When a project has more than 10 people involved or when multiple
companies are performing the development, a more structure development
management approach is required. Note that rapid prototyping can
be a subset of the structured development approach. This approach
applies a more disciplined approach to the intranet development.
Documentation requirements are larger, quality control is critical,
and the number of reviews increases. While some parts may seem
like overkill at the time, they can save a project from overruns,
especially late in the development cycle. For more information
about how the structured development approach works and detailed
technical and management information, you can contact me via e-mail.
(I've written a handbook on the topic :-)
Development & Documentation
Once the requirements analysis is well underway, the prototypes
are working, and the focus groups are becoming happy, it's time
to begin the development. Coordinating hardware and software purchases
and upgrades, network and hardware installation, software development,
documentation guides and manuals, reviews, and testing can become
a full-time job. The key to keeping a handle on all of this to
maintain a good written schedule that everyone can view and to have
periodic "all-hands" reviews. Remember that working
with vendors can be a frustrating experience. Hardware incompatibilities,
software bugs, late deliveries, mistaken cabling requirements,
etc. are more the norm than the exception. Outsourcing can help,
but you must be continually involved to ensure success.
Test & Review
Testing and Reviews take place throughout the development cycle,
including prototyping, development, deployment, operations, and
enhancements. It never ends. It's wise to place a single individual
in charge of testing and reviews. This is not a popular job, but
it is critical for developing a system that works and meets each
of the requirements. Be sure to empower this person (usually a
quality assurance engineer) with the appropriate authority. Also,
provide them with an appropriately sized staff. Testing is time
consuming, tedious work and preparing for reviews and analyzing
results can take much longer than you might think. Fortunately
this person can save you from being surprised at budget review
time and usually catches most problems before they become too
big. If you outsource this task, make sure that you make it clear
to the others on the team what the outsourcer's role is and what level of
authority they have.
Deployment & Training
OK, the development is complete, quality assurance is satisfied,
the documentation is ready, and all the "off-the-shelf"
products have arrived. Now it's time to put everything together.
This can be a highly disruptive time. Make sure that you have
full management support and that they understand the nature and
effect of the installation and deployment disruption. Scheduling
training sessions concurrently with the installation can be an
effective use of time. Don't skimp on the training. Make sure
you have training in the budget from the beginning and don't dip
into it. The best way to ensure success is to effectively train
the users so that they will actually use the system and possibly
sing its praises. Also remember that training is ongoing. New
employees or employees being moved or promoted will need to be
trained. Each time enhancements are added, new training sessions
must be scheduled.
Intranets usually contain one or more servers. Tasks such as backups,
bug fixes, software updates, hardware maintenance and upgrades,
print and media services, electronic mail account maintenance,
security patches, and other similar tasks must be performed regularly.
Operation and maintenance of such services require an operations
staff. It is not enough to "let the users take care of it."
If you are providing these services in-house then you will need
on-site support from either an outsourcing agency or in-house
staff. The current trend is to outsource most of these services
including the actual servers to an intranet outsourcing firm.
Outsourcing can result in a substantial savings. Just make sure
that your provider can supply the services you require and is
available when you need them. Also, be sure to discuss security
requirements with them before you hire them.
There is always one thing you can count on: "Requirements Creep."
The more successful the system, the faster requirements creep
will occur. As your users become more sophisticated they will
want more and more capabilities. If you can respond quickly and
efficiently, your users will again sing your praises (and upper
management will definitely take notice :-). Make sure that you
have designed in the ability to add features from the very beginning.
Remember to design-in scalability and flexibility at all phases
You might think that good manuals and good training would be sufficient
to effectively use your intranet. No so. A knowledgeable, available,
responsive help desk is critical to the overall success of the
project. Users will always find new uses for a well-designed
system and problems will inevitably occur. Without a help desk,
an intranet can become dated and under-utilized. In my experience,
deployment of an excellent help desk (with telephone, fax, online,
and e-mail capabilities) is the single most important function
that ensures the continued success of an intranet.